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2018年GRE考試《閱讀理解》練習題及答案匯總

2018-03-23 來(lái)源:思潤教育
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摘要:GRE閱讀題目解析:治療胃酸的藥,訓練自己用這種方式思考,否則你幾乎無(wú)法進(jìn)行任何分析性寫(xiě)作,也無(wú)法讀懂別人的分析性寫(xiě)作。如果你連論文都看不明白,人家大學(xué)招你去干嘛呢,估計也就是直接賣(mài)你個(gè)畢業(yè)證了。

  GRE閱讀題目解析:治療胃酸的藥


  Columnist: Until very recently, Presorbin and Veltrex, two medications used to block excess stomach acid, were both available only with a prescription written by a doctor. In an advertisement for Presorbin, its makers argue that Presorbin is superior on the grounds that doctors have written 200 million prescriptions for Presorbin, as compared to 100 million for Veltrex. It can be argued that the number of prescriptions written is never a worthwhile criterion for comparing the merits of medicines, but that the advertisement’s argument is absurd is quite adequately revealed by observing that Presorbin was available as a prescription medicine years before Veltrex was.

  1. In the columnist’s argument, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?

  A. The first is a claim that the columnist’s argument seeks to clarify; the second states a conclusion drawn about one possible interpretation of that claim.

  B. The first identifies the conclusion of an argument that the columnist’s argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  C. The first states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument; the second states a conclusion that the columnist draws in defending that conclusion against an objection.

  D. The first identifies an assumption made in an argument that the columnist's argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  E. The first is a claim that has been offered as evidence to support a position that the columnist opposes; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  1

  Columnist: Until very recently, Presorbin and Veltrex, two medications used to block excess stomach acid, were both available only with a prescription written by a doctor.

  專(zhuān)欄作者:直到最近,P 和 V,兩種治療胃酸過(guò)多的藥,都是處方藥。

  2

  In an advertisement for Presorbin, its makers argue that Presorbin is superior on the grounds that doctors have written 200 million prescriptions for Presorbin, as compared to 100 million for Veltrex.

  在 P 的一則廣告中,生產(chǎn)商認為 P 更好,根據是醫生已經(jīng)對 P 開(kāi)出了兩億份處方,而 V 只有一億。

  3

  It can be argued that the number of prescriptions written is never a worthwhile criterion for comparing the merits of medicines, but that the advertisement’s argument is absurd is quite adequately revealed by observing that Presorbin was available as a prescription medicine years before Veltrex was.

  當然可以反駁說(shuō),開(kāi)出過(guò)多少份處方從來(lái)不是比較藥物優(yōu)劣的恰當標準,然而只要注意到 P 作為一種處方藥比 V 上市早若干年,就足見(jiàn)該廣告邏輯之荒謬。

  (此句涉及 but 引導的一種讓步關(guān)系(很多時(shí)候我們忽略了 but 的讓步意味,只把它等同于漢語(yǔ)中的 “ 轉折 ”,二者還是有區別的):

  讓步條件,處方數不是評價(jià)藥物好壞的標準(這很好理解,因為有價(jià)格,醫保是否覆蓋等很多因素影響一種藥的銷(xiāo)量);

  強調內容,廣告邏輯荒謬。

  前半句被讓步掉了,(盡管)這不是一種評價(jià)藥物優(yōu)劣的恰當標準,(讓步,即便我們就用這種不恰當的標準來(lái)評價(jià)兩種藥 —— 假定讓步條件為真)結論仍然是有問(wèn)題的,因為這種比較不公平,P 比 V 上市早若干年。)

  1. In the columnist’s argument, the two highlighted portions play which of the following roles?

  A. The first is a claim that the columnist’s argument seeks to clarify; the second states a conclusion drawn about one possible interpretation of that claim.

  B. The first identifies the conclusion of an argument that the columnist’s argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  C. The first states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument; the second states a conclusion that the columnist draws in defending that conclusion against an objection.

  D. The first identifies an assumption made in an argument that the columnist's argument is directed against; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  E. The first is a claim that has been offered as evidence to support a position that the columnist opposes; the second states the main conclusion of the columnist’s argument.

  選 B

  本題考查批判性思維 critical thinking 基礎,即分辨什么是結論 conclusions,什么是證據 evidence 或 理由 reasons。

  不理解這種問(wèn)法,說(shuō)明你還沒(méi)進(jìn)入 GRE 語(yǔ)文的基本語(yǔ)境,去讀 Asking the Right Questions 吧,趁還來(lái)得及。

  本文篇幅很短,所以邏輯關(guān)系相當清晰,簡(jiǎn)述如下。

  1)廣告邏輯:

  結論 conclusion 1:P 比 V 好。

  理由 reason 1:醫生開(kāi)出的 P 處方比 V 多一倍。

  2)專(zhuān)欄作者邏輯:

  結論 conclusion 2:廣告是放屁。

  理由 reason 2-1:處方數量不能如實(shí)反映藥物的療效。

  理由 reason 2-2:P 比 V 上市早。

  綜上,選 B。


  訓練自己用這種方式思考,否則你幾乎無(wú)法進(jìn)行任何分析性寫(xiě)作,也無(wú)法讀懂別人的分析性寫(xiě)作。如果你連論文都看不明白,人家大學(xué)招你去干嘛呢,估計也就是直接賣(mài)你個(gè)畢業(yè)證了。

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